Glyfada/ Glyfa

On a strategic location above the present-day settlement Glyfada or Glyfa (just opposite the islet Trizonia), on a hill called Palaeokastron, is located an ancient fortification dated to the end of the 4th or the beginning of the 3d century B.C. It is the acropolis of a so far unidentified city of Western Locris. 

The impressive fortification made of local grey stone consists of two precincts, whereas in some remote and inaccessible parts of the hill the rocks offer natural fortification. The outer precinct comprises a surface measuring 170 x 300 meters and its construction is quite impressive, although in some parts somewhat coarse. On the north side are preserved the foundations of large rectangular walls.  On natural terraces between the two precincts there are remains of buildings, some of which must have had a public or religious character. The interior fortification, which surrounds a surface measuring 100 x 55 meters is of a polygonal plan. The fortification wall is mainly built in the pseudo-isodomic masonry system with trapezoidal stones, whereas in some parts it follows the polygonal masonry. The masonry is preserved in quite good condition. It is fortified by eight semicircular towers, of which two on the eastern side protected the gate which constituted the main entrance to the acropolis.

Within the acropolis stands out a quite large cistern.  Beyond the fortification and especially above modern Glyfa is located the ancient city, erected on the natural terraces.  Remains of a house of the Hellenistic period have been located to the NE of the hill;  in the region connecting Palaeokastro with the modern national road between Naupaktos and Itea was located the necropolis, of which remains of tombs are still extant. Finally, a distinctive cult of the region was that of the goddess Vassileia, following an inscription located in Glyfada; the cult is attested also in other cities of ancient Western Locris, such as Tolofon (Agioi Pantes) and Physcus (Malandrino). 

Text: Anthoula Tsaroucha, Archaeologist
Translation: Dr. Aphrodite Kamara, Historian